IAM history and how it works in the following ways?
Traditionally, IAM (Identity and Access Management) consists of four fundamental components. These include a directory, such as Active Directory, which stores personal information for user identification. There's also a set of tools for managing user lifecycle, including additions and deletions. Additionally, there is a system that governs user access through enforcement policies and access privileges and an audit system to track and verify system activities.
In the past, the regulation of user access typically involved various authentication methods to confirm a worker's identity. These methods included passwords, digital certificates, tokens, and smart cards. Hardware tokens and credit card-sized smart cards played a role in two-factor authentication, which combines something you know with something you have to verify your identity. Smart cards contain an embedded integrated circuit chip, a secure microcontroller or a similar intelligent component with internal memory or a standalone memory chip. Software tokens, which can exist on any device with storage capabilities (think Flipper Zero), emerged in the early 2000s.
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